This data is embargoed until 00:01 Wednesday 24th March 2021


Introduction and Overview

1. What is PAMCo – Audience Measurement for Publishers?

PAMCo – Audience Measurement for Publishers is the new audience measurement currency for published media. It produces de-duplicated brand reach allowing users to carry out reach & frequency planning and also plan and trade audiences across all the platforms on which published media content is delivered – phone, tablet, desktop and print.

2. Why is PAMCo an improvement on NRS?

PAMCo replaces the National Readership Survey (NRS). NRS was originally designed as a survey to measure print readership, and although over time some digital audience data were integrated via NRS PADD this was not a full solution. With the spectacular growth of mobile audiences it was time to design a new service for the digital world which would include all publisher platforms and enable full utility in planning audiences across those platforms.

The thorough industry wide process to find the successor to NRS allowed PAMCo to design such an audience measurement system. This is reflected in a world leading methodology, which is built on the strong base of a large high quality sample of 35,000 face to face interviews with the innovation of a specially designed data feed from Comscore. The development of the PAMCo digital Panel provides measures of duplication of reading across digital and print, the first single-source data of its kind.

The new PAMCo currency is platform neutral and provides the following:

De-duplicated reach and frequency for all platforms
An increased number of brands reported across all platforms
Single source data to understand duplication between print and digital
Improved estimates of net brand reach and duplication
Reporting newsbrand sections across print AND digital
New engagement data

3. How does PAMCo measure published media audiences?

PAMCo’s world-leading methodology integrates data from three sources to provide a complete view of publisher audiences.

A high-quality face to face survey of 35,000 participants per year interviewed in home to collect print readership and demographic data.
A new specially developed data file from Comscore, UKOM’s chosen digital audience supplier, which makes it possible to integrate fully ‘phone and tablet audiences as well as pc/laptop audiences. A highly sophisticated data integration methodology has been developed to fuse Comscore’s estimates with the readership/enumeration survey.
Duplication of reading between the print and digital platforms is largely captured by the fusion process, with some calibration to match observations from the PAMCo panel. The panel was part of PAMCo’s set-up and validation process and tracked the digital reading behaviour of almost 10,000 survey participants across all their devices for 28 days soon after their PAMCo interview between April 2016 and December 2018. Duplication of reading between the digital platforms is matched to Comscore.

PAMCo Methodology

Please click here to download the PAMCo methodology slide

4. How can I access PAMCo data?

You can access PAMCo data in 3 different ways:

Topline audience estimates are available through the PAMCo website
More detailed analysis can be carried out through computer planning bureaux, such as Kantar Media, Nielsen IMS, Telmar, as well as Mediatel and Touchpoints.
There is also an opportunity to obtain direct access to respondent-level data to feed into publisher and agency proprietary tools.

For details on how to subscribe to PAMCo data, please see questions  53 & 54.

PAMCo: the latest Joint Industry Currency

5. What is PAMCo Ltd?

The Publishers Audience Measurement Company (PAMCo) is the governing body which oversees audience measurement for the published media industry.

Our funding stakeholders are News Media Association (NMA – representing Newsbrands), Professional Publishers Association (PPA – Magazine Media) and the Institute of Practitioners in Advertising (IPA – Advertising Agencies). The Board also has representation from The Incorporated Society of British Advertisers (ISBA).

PAMCo Ltd is responsible for the new Joint Industry Currency (JIC) called PAMCo (Audience Measurement for Publishers) in place of NRS data.

6. What is a JIC?

Joint Industry Currencies (JICs) are owned by the industry – advertisers, agencies and media owners – to provide transparent and objective audience measurement for each medium. These data are produced and sold at cost, providing both industry accountability and a robust trading currency for each medium. PAMCo is the latest Joint Industry Currency.

7. What has happened to NRS?

NRS Ltd handed responsibility for governance to PAMCo Ltd, from January 2016.

8. What is the difference between PAMCo & ABC?

PAMCo provides “estimates” of “audiences” to be used for reach and frequency planning, and includes full demographic profiling of who readers are. ABC is the “count” of number of “copies/editions” sold/opened which can be used in planning and trading and offers media owners an independent check of internal reporting systems.

How it all works

9. What is different about PAMCo?

There are differences in both the methodology and the utility of the PAMCo data relative to NRS.

In a key development to enable mobile audiences to be included with full utility for planning, Comscore create a special ‘respondent level’ data file for PAMCo. This means data from Comscore respondents can be fused with those of PAMCo respondents. For NRS PADD this was possible for desktop audiences, but not for mobile. This file also provides more granularity than was available previously e.g. separate audience estimates for ‘phones and tablets rather than a combined estimate for ‘mobile’.

Another innovation is that between April 2016 and December 2018 10,000 PAMCo participants were recruited to the PAMCo Panel, which involved having their reading behaviour tracked on all devices soon after their interview. This provided single-source data on the duplication of reading the same brand in digital and print, something that had not previously been available.

In respect of the readership interview, one key methodological difference is that PAMCo has a brand first readership interview, whereas NRS was print first and only asked about digital reading later in the interview. Other important differences within the interview include:

PAMCo uses full colour masthead prompts for the readership questions, including non- date specific front covers for the magazines and newspaper supplements.
Questions about print newsbrands ask specifically about weekday and Saturday papers, rather than the ‘6-day’ approach used by NRS.
There are changes to the scale used to establish frequency of reading.
The PAMCo interview is carried out on a single tablet screen rather than Double Screen CAPI.

For more detail on the differences between the NRS and PAMCo surveys and how this might affect the estimates please click here to see the overview of NRS & PAMCo key differences doc.

In terms of utility, PAMCo offers reach and frequency planning across all platforms, both separately and in combination i.e.:


For NRS, reach and frequency planning was only possible for desktop and print platforms.

The new methodology also allows for inclusion of audience estimates from new platforms and devices so long as they can be measured on Comscore and Comscore can in turn provide PAMCo with the required respondent level data file for data integration purposes.

10. Why does the PAMCo questionnaire use a brand-first approach?

To reflect the reality that many readers now read across both print and digital platforms and so a questionnaire which focuses on print reading and asks about digital reading separately is no longer appropriate.
To reduce the potential for confusion between print and digital reading (and possible over-claims for print).
To collect claimed readership data for all publisher brands which is then used to provide ‘links’ for the fusion with Comscore digital audience estimates. Claimed digital reading is very different from Comscore estimates, and usually lower, not least because participants will not usually remember all the sites they have visited. There is no intention of publishing the claimed digital behaviour, but it helps to have these data in the background for the data integration process.

11. Why is PAMCo incorporating Comscore’s digital estimates?

PAMCo incorporates Comscore’s estimates for digital platforms, rather than issue its own estimates because Published media wish to have a level playing field with all other digital brands in the universe. Buyers have told PAMCo this is critical to enable like for like comparisons and it would be unhelpful for PAMCo to release a different and conflicting set of numbers to those issued by the UKOM approved supplier and de facto industry currency.

For information on Comscore’s methodology for measuring digital audiences please contact Ayesha Neunie on

12. How does the data integration work?

In essence, fusion transfers audience estimates based on participants in one dataset (Comscore in this case) to participants in the host dataset (PAMCo), so that there is a combined dataset.

In order to do this, the fusion finds the best possible matches between participants in the respective datasets in respect of their demographics and behaviour.

Unlike NRS, PAMCo has been designed for data integration. The questionnaire, for instance, includes more questions to help match the two sets of participants.

Another development specifically for PAMCo is that Comscore create a special ‘respondent level’ data file to enable their respondents (i.e. participants) to be matched with PAMCo participants. For NRS PADD this was possible for desktop audiences, but not for mobile.

Creating the ‘respondent- level’ file is a complex procedure, as Comscore’s audience estimates are ‘hybrid’ and only partly based on participants. Comscore observes digital behaviour passively via several different and separate panels of participants, but also relies on counts of machine activity (i.e. site/app-centric measurement via tags) to capture all digital activity and model audience estimates.

Ipsos must also align the Comscore and PAMCo universes, as there are some differences. You can read more about this in Q.13. Ipsos have developed a number of other procedures to prepare the Comscore data for integration, e.g. filling in some missing demographic data for smaller brands.

In summary:

Data from each source (PAMCo readership survey and Comscore) are fused together based on matching people in terms of demographics and behaviour.
Comscore supply a special respondent level file which improves the quality of the digital data and allows the fusion or match to happen
Ipsos align the data in order to retain the key trading currency i.e. Comscore for digital and PAMCo for readership

13. Are the PAMCo digital audience estimates the same as those Comscore publish?

The data integration procedure is designed to match Comscore’s published estimates as closely as possible.

Users will, however, notice some differences due to universe definition. PAMCo’s universe is Great Britain age 15+, while Comscore’s is United Kingdom age 6+ for home desktop/laptop and 18+ for mobile and work desktop/laptop. Ipsos therefore make adjustments to remove those visitors who are either based in Northern Ireland or aged 6-14, and model in estimates for mobile visitors aged 15-17, as well as other procedures necessary to align the PAMCo and Comscore datasets.

A tolerance is then set that PAMCo estimates should be within 5% of the target Comscore estimates, though they are usually well within that.

14. Why can there be differences in total reach for combinations of brands when comparing PAMCo digital audience data with the same combination of brands in Comscore’s analysis tools?

There will be some differences to Comscore due to universe definitions, as discussed in response to the previous FAQ. However there can also be some differences in reach for combinations of digital brands due to differences in the level of duplication between brands in the data Comscore supply to PAMCo. The data supplied tend to over-estimate duplication between brands somewhat relative to the duplications calculated in Comscore’s own analysis tools. In turn this means that combined reach for a group of different digital brands will usually be somewhat smaller than the equivalent estimate in Comscore’s own analysis tool.

This discrepancy is caused by the complexity of the procedures Comscore use to transfer their data into a suitable format for integration with PAMCo. Comscore’s hybrid methodology relies heavily on modelling, including duplications between brands.

Total Sector Digital Reach for magazines, newsbrands and all published media are provided on the PAMCo website. Using these figures will provide a closer alignment with the corresponding overall reach estimates in Comscore’s analysis tool.

Users conducting analysis for smaller combinations of brands are advised to use the reach estimates as calculated directly within the PAMCO database in order to avoid confusion when making comparisons, which would undermine the currency.

15. What methodology changes did Comscore implement in October 2019?

Comscore made a number of methodology changes in October 2019 which has had an effect on some of their digital audience estimates. This is relevant to PAMCo with effect from PAMCO 1 2020, which incorporates November 2019 Comscore data.
A note of the various Comscore methodology changes can be found here. Of particular note, Comscore changed the source of its establishment survey for mobile universe estimates from MobiLens to PAMCo. PAMCo already provides establishment survey data for all other Comscore digital products in Great Britain. This change in data source has resulted in an increase in ComScore’s estimate of iOS users and, conversely, a decrease in Android users. This, along with the other changes, has affected some of the brand and sector digital audience estimates included in PAMCo. Specific queries about estimates should be directed to Comscore.

16. Why are the duplications for reading via mobile different between brands in PAMCo compared to NRS PADD?

PAMCo has a completely different way of incorporating Comscore’s mobile audience estimates, compared to NRS PADD. The NRS PADD monthly mobile data were created by calibrating the NRS questionnaire claims for mobile readership so that they matched Comscore’s monthly audience levels by brand. So the NRS PADD duplications with the mobile claims for other publisher brands in part came from what existed in the underlying recall data (which are quite different from Comscore anyway) and in part ‘fell out’ as additional respondents were converted to be mobile readers in order to match the Comscore targets. There was no practical way of controlling mobile duplications with other publisher brands. The PAMCo methodology uses a fusion with a specially created respondent level data file from Comscore which includes audience data for all digital platforms including ‘phone and tablet. The duplication between reading different brands on digital platforms reflect those in the data file supplied by Comscore.

17. Are the PAMCo audience numbers comparable to NRS estimates?

No, the audience estimates are not directly comparable with NRS. There are many changes which mean that it is not possible to make direct comparisons for commercial purposes, and the PAMCo data are in effect a brand-new dataset. For instance, changes to the readership questions include the introduction of a ‘brand-first’ questionnaire structure.

Although the audience estimates for digital platforms are still sourced from Comscore, as they were for NRS PADD, overall estimates of brand reach may change somewhat as estimates of the duplication of reading in print and digital are derived from PAMCo’s digital panel.

Due to the different methodologies, the PAMCo Board has mandated that NRS and PAMCo data should not be compared for commercial or marketing purposes. This means that from Q1 2017 data release onwards the data should not be compared with previous periods of NRS data. Also, individual periods should not be broken out to compare NRS and PAMCo data for commercial or marketing purposes.

19. How does PAMCo methodology compare to other readership measurement currencies around the world?

Throughout the development of PAMCo, the team have been participating in a number of conferences and discussions where audience measurement surveys around the world share best practice and latest developments.

There are some common themes to these developments, for instance:

Adoption of brand-first questionnaire designs
The increasing number of fusions to incorporate passively collected estimates of digital reading
A growing focus on the importance of representing duplication of reading between print and digital.

A number of countries are developing tools to measure the latter, though PAMCo set up the first all-device Panel we are aware of.

20. How is PAMCo’s methodology changing to address the current Covid-19 situation?

PAMCo fieldwork was suspended on 17th March 2020.  Given the challenges with face-face interviewing in the current circumstances and the uncertainty of when Ipsos will be able to resume this form of data collection, PAMCo is now accelerating its existing plan, to develop alternatives to face to face interviewing, with Ipsos and the PAMCo Technical group.  This will see three principle approaches investigated as below and the plan is to commence data collection using some or all of these approaches (including face-face if this is possible in any form) from Quarter 4 2020:

    1. Testing the online questionnaire
    2. Developing a paper questionnaire
    3. Exploring video interviewing

The testing programme has been developed and is taking place from mid May through to beginning of August.  Following these tests, the PAMCo Technical Group will make a recommendation on a mixed methodological approach to the PAMCo Board for discussion and approval at the August Board meeting.

What’s included in the dataset?

21. What is the PAMCo universe?

PAMCo represents a universe of adults aged 15+, living in Great Britain. The weighted universe is 53,303,000 adults for 2019.

22. Which platforms are reported?


23. What is Total Brand Reach?

Total Brand Reach (TBR) is the measure used in the PAMCo published tables. The definition has been agreed by the PAMCo Board.

TBR is a measure of the reach of all related content for each publisher brand and includes:

Related/sub-brands that share the main title branding or url of the parent brand e.g. The Guardian and www.the
Related and sub-brands that display the parent branding on the home page of the website/app.
Sunday papers that do not share weekday branding (e.g. The Observer), to keep parity with other brands.

Non-publisher websites, including store/retailer/membership websites will not be included in TBR definitions but could be part of the overall PAMCo dataset.

In the analysis systems provided by the computer bureaux, it is possible to break out the different brands and platforms contributing to TBR, with the exception of third-party platforms which are covered in more detail in Q.26 below. A full list of the brands and platforms included in each TBR estimate is available on the PAMCo website and within the computer bureaux.

For more detailed information please click here for our full TBR Rules.

24. What are aggregated entities?

What are aggregated entities?

Aggregated entities are groups of brands that are normally planned and sold as a package. PAMCo has provided audience estimates for aggregated titles for many years.  Going forward it is expected that publishers either individually or collectively will create more aggregated entities which they would like to produce cross platform estimates for. This is a trend across the wider media market, and is welcomed by agency and advertiser customers who often wish to plan and trade audiences in this way.

PAMCo currently reports aggregated entity estimates for The National, Big City & The Ozone Project

For rules about inclusion of aggregated entities in PAMCo please click here.

25. Is reading via apps included, and, if so, how?

PAMCo includes reading via apps. A number of individual publisher apps are included, subject to meeting Comscore’s minimum reporting sample sizes. More broadly reading entities in app is also taken into account. In both cases “page views” must be added to the PAMCo dataset, otherwise in app reading will be represented in reach but not in page views. The formula used to do this is an allowance of one page view per 30 seconds app duration. This formula is provided by Comscore, though is not covered by UKOM reporting rules.

26. Is reading via apps included, and, if so, how?

Comscore can include measurements for some of these platforms, currently FBIA, Google AMP, Apple News, Flipboard and Google Newsstand. This requires publishers to make the necessary arrangements with Comscore and have appropriate tagging in place. Traffic via these platforms will then be included in their overall digital estimates within PAMCo.

However, due to the way data relating to third-party platforms are collected, Comscore are not able to supply Ipsos with the ‘respondent-level data’ which would be required to break out estimates for third-party platforms in the PAMCo database. In the interests of transparency, the PAMCo Board have therefore agreed publishers will be asked to identify whether or not their Comscore estimates include traffic from third-party platforms. This is indicated by a symbol D contained in the name of the publication so it is immediately visible to users when using any analysis system or published tables.

It remains a key development objective to be able to break out third-party platform estimates within the PAMCo dataset, so that their contribution to the overall digital estimate is clear and users have maximum flexibility as to which platforms to plan on. PAMCo and Ipsos will be working with Comscore and the other industry bodies concerned towards this end.

27. What is in the PAMCO Questionnaire?

Print readership

For all brands:

Average Issue Readership
Daily reach
Weekly reach
Monthly reach
Read Past Year
Frequency of reading (using a NEW scale*)
*The four PAMCo frequency codes (Almost Always, Quite Often, Occasionally, Less Often) will be published via the bureaux, but ‘Occasionally’ and ‘Less Often’ will continue to be merged and reported as ‘Only Occasionally’ in top line reports.
Probability of reading (High, Medium, Low) for newspaper supplements and in-paper sections

Engagement data

Source of copy
Time spent reading
Attitude statements (NEW to PAMCo):
Reading it is time well spent
I feel a close connection with it
It gives me something I can’t get elsewhere
I trust what I read in it

Topic/Sports/News Interest

A list of 48 different topics, including breakdowns for types of news and sport
B. The following topics were not published in the NRS blended data but are published for PAMCo now that there are a full 12 months of data:
Topic interest: news, politics, craft, environment
Sports interest: horse riding, boxing, cycling/mountain biking, swimming
News interest: local news, national news, international news

Future plans

Seven activities planned for the next six months, including obtaining a new car and spending £1,000 or more on home improvements or furnishings


NEW and detailed data on household and personal usage (Any, 1, 2, 3+) of the following devices:
E-book reader
Smart watch
Video games console
Smart TV
Blu Ray
Streaming devices
An internet connected Set Top Box or DVR

Classification data

Age (now including separate breaks for 65-74 and 75+, instead of just 65+)
Social grade
Main shopper
Marital status
Terminal education age
Employment status
Working status
Chief Income Earner
Household composition and presence of children
Ethnic Origin
Government Office Region
SIC and SOC classifications

Other media

Radio (including NEW PAMCo data on days a week any station listened to and time spent listening on an average day)
Internet usage

28. What is Average Issue Readership?

The key measure of print readership is known as Average Issue Readership or AIR. AIR is the number of people who have read or looked at an average issue of a publication. The definition is based on those who say they have last read a publication within its publication interval, i.e.:

Daily newsbrands Read yesterday
Sunday newsbrands Read in the last 7 days
Weekly magazines Read in the last 7 days
Fortnightly magazines Read in the last 2 weeks
Monthly magazines Read in the last month
Bi-monthly Read in the last 2 months
Quarterly Read in the last 3 months

For daily newsbrands AIR is available for Saturday editions, as well as an estimate for the 5-day weekday edition, and an overall 6-day estimate.

29. What data are included about digital readers?

The data incorporated from Comscore are:

Daily, weekly and monthly reach (Unique Visitors) by platform
Page views by platform. (Desktop video views are also included)
Time spent by platform
Content sections (where published by Comscore, usually for the newsbrands). It will be possible to analyse these digital sections individually and by 11 content categories: News, Homepage, Sport, Lifestyle, Arts & Entertainments, Personal Finance, Business, Science & Technology, Travel, Jobs/Careers, and Motors).

30. What is Comscore’s definition of a visitor?

The Comscore definition is that a Unique Visitor has:

Initiated the page-load (Comscore try to remove auto-refresh/open pages)
Had a page view credited within a 3-second window

31. What is the PAMCo analysis base?

PAMCo publishes data every quarter based on the most recent 12 months of survey data available. The Comscore data integrated is from a single month close to the end of the PAMCo 12-month survey period. The plan for releases in 2019 is shown below:

PAMCo Data Period Comscore data period
January 2018 – December 2018 November 2018
April 2018 – March 2019 March 2019
July 2018 – June 2019 June 2019
October 2018 – September 2019 September 2019

Please note that as the print and digital data integration is carried out based on the full 12-month dataset, digital data and combined print and digital data should only be analysed on a 12-month base, even if the print title is large enough to be analysed on a six-month base. The integration of digital data is not controlled on a six-month base, or for any time period other than the full 12 months.

Duplication of reading in print & on screen

32. How is duplication between reading in print and on screen controlled?

Duplication of reading is largely a product of the fusion process, with a final calibration to targets derived from data collected from the PAMCo Panel.

33. What is the PAMCo Panel?

The PAMCo Panel was set-up to provide single-source data on the proportion of readers reading publisher brands in both print and digital.  This was a major innovation in the PAMCo set-up, as such data had not previously been available at scale, and there was no reliable benchmark for duplication levels.

Around 5,000 survey participants per annum agreed to have a tracker app installed on all their digital devices to track their reading of publisher brands for 28 days, following on as soon as possible after their PAMCo readership interview. Panel recruitment commenced in April 2016 and ran until December 2018, during which time almost 10,000 panellists had their digital reading behaviour tracked.

The sole purpose of the PAMCo Panel was to provide the best possible benchmark for print and digital duplication of reading. It was never used to derive digital audience estimates, which come from a data fusion with Comscore. Indeed, with an annual sample of 5,000, the Panel would have been too small to provide direct measures for more than a small number of brands

34. Why did Panel data collection not continue?

The Panel data confirmed that the fusion Ipsos carry out to integrate Comscore’s digital audience estimates with print readership estimates from the PAMCo survey is highly successful in capturing duplication of reading between print and digital.

In most cases adjustments to match the ‘duplication targets’ generated by the PAMCo Panel result in monthly brand reach which is within  -/+2% of that which would be estimated by fusion alone.  As such, the Panel validated the fusion process and it was decided by the PAMCo Board and Technical Group to cease Panel data collection with effect from January 2019.

Adjustments to print and digital duplication levels by brand continue to be made based on the Panel data, and in time may be supplemented by a modelling procedure to take account of trends if necessary.  There is no discernible change in the PAMCo data as a result of ceasing Panel data collection.

35. How are the Panel data used?

The Panel data indicate how much more likely print readers are than non-print readers to visit digital platforms of the brand concerned.  For some brands there is very little difference between print readers and non-print readers, for others there is a much stronger relationship, with print readers being much more likely than non-print readers to visit digital platforms for that brand.

This information is used to set a target print and digital duplication for each brand, which must take into account both the information from the Panel and the size of the Comscore digital audience estimate.  Duplication targets are set at a monthly level, and initially for digital reading as a whole (though the allocation process takes into account the various different digital platforms).

The target duplications derived from the Panel data are used to adjust the print and digital reading duplications in the fused dataset and ensure duplication is represented fully.  For the largest brands these adjustments tend to be minimal, as the fusion is already capturing most of the expected duplication.  For smaller brands around 20-30% extra duplication (relative to the fusion alone) is added in, but even in these cases the effect on total monthly brand reach is small.

36. Was a sample size of 5,000 enough to generate duplication targets for the smaller brands?

Ipsos use a sample of around 5,000 to generate the duplication targets, though in practice samples by individual brand may be less than that if tagging has not been at 100% throughout. Ipsos developed an innovative solution to provide duplication targets for all brands:

A smoothing approach is used which is variable by sample size. For large sample brands smoothing is minimal, while small sample brands have more smoothing applied to their targets, to avoid volatility.
The smoothing model also draws on claimed duplication data from the PAMCo print survey to help predict duplication targets for brands for which there is insufficient panel sample (though it would not be appropriate to take these data at face-value due to the biases and understatement in what participants claim they have read on screen).

37. Why are the duplication targets calculated, rather than taken directly from the Panel?

To take account of different levels of readership in the fused PAMCo/Comscore database compared the PAMCo Panel, e.g. if the Comscore estimate is bigger than the digital reach observed in the Panel, which is often the case.
To take account of sample sizes which are too small to produce reliable duplication estimates.

38. How representative is the Panel?

The Panel was recruited directly from the high-quality PAMCo sample, with every effort made to encourage participation.  The requirement was to measure visits to publisher sites across all the participant’s devices, rather than a single device, which would be much easier to achieve. As such, the Panel quality is high relative to the more usual ‘opt-in’ sample used for digital measurement panels.

As with most samples, there are some skews in the unweighted sample. The most noticeable is to somewhat under-represent those with 3+ devices, and a tendency to under- represent men and over- represent women. The Panel data are therefore weighted by gender and age, newspaper and magazine readership (to ensure print readers are not over-represented) and 4-week print readership and device usage, to correct these skews as far as possible.

Other points to note are:

Reading via work computers is not included. It is not possible to achieve the necessary permissions to provide a representative sample of reading at work for PAMCo’s purposes.
Reading via third-party platforms is not included, other than for Google AMP if the correct tags are in place.
The Tracker App could not identify if different people were using a single device, particularly as it was designed to be as non-intrusive as possible. Only primary users of phones and tablets would have their reading measured, which helped reduce the likelihood of shared usage.  While in some cases there will be some overstatement of digital repertoire, the claimed usage data suggest relatively low levels of shared usage.

The PAMCo Technical Group conducted an assessment of the data provided by the Panel, which are credible in terms of relationships between the print and digital platforms, and between different types of brand and content.

39. Are PAMCo likely to need to set-up another Panel to measure duplication of reading between print and digital if digital reading behaviour changes over time?

This would only be necessary if there were very significant changes, for the following reasons:

A key factor determining the proportion of duplication in reading between print and digital is the relative size of the platforms, which are tracked by the ongoing audience measurement of PAMCo and Comscore.  For instance, if audiences reading via pcs drop this will be measured by Comscore, and when these new Comscore pc audience data are incorporated within PAMCo the fusion will reflect a lower proportion of print readers reading via pc.
It is important to remember that the duplication data generated by the Panel are based on monthly digital reading as a whole, and for smaller brands the sample sizes available mean duplication targets must be modelled, drawing in part on survey data. Even if the Panel had continued there is a limit to the sensitivity with which it is possible to track  trends for small brands, individual platforms, particular demographics etc
It is possible that there could be more structural changes in duplication over time, though this requires major and sustained change. If, for example, the digital audience for a brand experiences a large and sustained increase, it may be that the ‘new’ digital readers are less likely to read in print than the longstanding digital readers. The possibility of structural change will be checked by monitoring the overlaps in the claimed survey data. Claimed data are not a good guide to absolute levels of duplication, but will give an indication if there are significant trends which need to be taken into account. Ipsos will also be monitoring the amount of calibration in the fused dataset, as an observed increase may indicate underlying change.

If there are indications of fundamental underlying change the plan is to extend the use of claimed survey data in the duplication modelling process, where it already plays a role.

Using PAMCo in the data bureaux

40. Can I set up favourite runs/cross tabs and use them each time there is a new data release?

Any favourite/regular runs saved within the PAMCo dataset can be carried forward for each future PAMCo release.

41. When will I be able to trend my data?

Due to the different methodologies between NRS and PAMCo data the PAMCo Board have mandated that they should not be compared for marketing and commercial purposes. From the PAMCo 1 2019 data release it is possible to compare and trend PAMCo datasets.

42. Can I run my analysis on a base other than 12 months?

PAMCo publishes data every quarter based on the most recent rolling 12 months of survey data available e.g. PAMCo January 2018 – December 2018.

For larger titles it is possible to look at PRINT readership for periods of less than 12 months, e.g. the most recent six or nine months. However, the minimum sample of average issue readers recommended for such analysis is 100.

Analysis of DIGITAL audience data or combined print and digital audience data should ONLY be conducted on a 12 month base. This is because the integration of digital data is carried out using the full 12 months of PAMCo data and is not controlled for any time period other than the full 12 months.

43. Can I look at seasonal trends in the data?

As above, PAMCo print readership data can be broken out into particular periods or seasons for analysis, but this is only recommended if the brand has a sample of over 100 average issue readers in the period concerned.

44. Can I do bureaux runs with multiple surveys?

This is possible. Please contact your own planning bureaux for details on how to carry this out.

Nielsen IMS: 020 7420 9200
Kantar Media: 020 7160 5505
Telmar Communications Ltd: 020 7467 2599

45. Are low sample sizes an issue when analysing the digital data?

One of the objectives of PAMCo was to include as many publisher brands as possible in the digital dataset, and if a brand is included data will be shown for all platforms for which Comscore produces data.

However, we would caution that users consider the size of the brand concerned when analysing the data in detail. For a relatively small digital brand it would not be recommended to look at daily and weekly audience data; the monthly data will provide a more stable analysis base. Similarly, it will not always be appropriate to carry out detailed analysis for individual platforms (e.g. by specific demographics), particularly tablet which tends to be the smallest of the digital platforms.

Unfortunately, it is not possible to give guidance in respect of specific sample sizes, particularly as the Comscore data are only in part based on sample.

46. Why if I manually combine daily and weekly estimates, are they different to the overcodes in the bureaux?

In the PAMCo data, whether a person has read or looked at a publication in print or online is expressed in one of two different ways, either as a binary (1/0) variable or as a probability. Traditionally, probabilities have been used as the required input for reach and frequency algorithms and binary data has been used within the cross-tab systems but in the PAMCo dataset (as in its predecessor NRS PADD) probabilities have also been used for some parts of the data within the cross-tab systems because daily and weekly reach in Comscore’s data file take the form of probabilities. Click here for more information.



47. How do I carry out reach and frequency planning?

Please speak to your respective planning bureaux for training on how to carry out reach and frequency planning

48. Why is there no print and digital combined code in reach and frequency analysis?

There will be a code for the various digital platforms in combination (as well as codes for each of the individual platforms separately). However, as the method of planning print is by insertions and for digital is by page views, it is not possible to combine the two into a single code. Print and digital can be planned in combination in the same schedule, using the separate codes provided for each.

49. Can I produce a plan that is date specific?

This is not possible, as the audience estimates are an average across the reporting periods concerned.

50. Can I plan several insertions that appear in different parts of a single edition of print title, e.g. one in the main paper and one in an accompanying supplement on the same day?

No, this is not advisable. At the moment the reach and frequency planning facilities within the bureaux assume that if there is more than one insertion in a publication, that these are placed in different editions. The calculations would be misleading if the intention was that the insertions appeared in the same edition, as reach would be overstated. PAMCo will be working with Ipsos and the bureaux to see if it is possible to develop a facility specifically for this type of analysis.

51. Can I optimise my plan across individual platforms?

Please contact your respective planning bureaux for information on optimisation tools.

52. If I am a monthly title, can I analyse my daily and weekly print reach as well as monthly reach?

Daily, weekly and monthly print reach estimates are provided for all brands in the bureaux planning systems. However care should be taken with sample sizes for the smaller brands.

53. Why can digital reach differ for some brands between crosstab and R&F in the planning bureaux?

There are instances where not every respondent, with a reach claim for a given brand, has been allocated at least one page view for the same brand in the respondent level data supplied by Comscore for the fusion. As the R&F algorithm in the planning bureaux works with page views, in some cases it is possible to select 100% page views and still not achieve 100% reach. Comscore have confirmed that there are potential reasons that could cause the issue of reach with missing page views for desktop and mobile platforms. The PAMCo Technical Group is working with Ipsos and Comscore to investigate this issue.

Accessing PAMCo – Audience Measurement for Publishers data

54. How can I access the data?

The topline data are posted on the PAMCo website and are available without subscription. PAMCo & Comscore subscribers have access to the full PAMCo database via one of the computer bureaux (Kantar Media, Nielsen IMS, Telmar, Mediatel) licensed by PAMCo Ltd to provide a data analysis service.

It is also possible to obtain direct access to respondent-level data to feed into your own planning tools. Please contact PAMCo Ltd to find out how to do this.

To access the full PAMCo dataset you must subscribe to both PAMCo and Comscore, which is the current UKOM approved supplier of digital audience estimates.

From January 2021, UKOM have appointed Ipsos as their new supplier of digital audience estimates and PAMCo will be using Ipsos iris as the source of its digital data from this date onwards.  Therefore, from January 2021 you will need to subscribe to both PAMCo and Ipsos iris for access to the full PAMCo dataset.

55. What sort of Comscore subscription do I need to access the digital data?

You need a subscription for MMX Multi-Platform, MMX and Mobile Metrix. If you have a query about your existing subscription please contact your designated Account Manager or if you are new to Comscore please contact Natalie Soutter

56. Who can be measured on PAMCo?

Any publisher-owned print or digital brand is welcome to apply to have their brand included in PAMCo. For digital brands this is the case, even if there is no corresponding print brand, or the print brand does not have a readership estimate published.

For print publications the key consideration is that display advertising is carried. Publications which are not normally covered are:

Titles carrying only classified advertising, or not carrying advertising at all
Trade, business or professional titles, or special-interest titles whose readers are unlikely to be properly represented in the sample
Titles aimed primarily at children (aged 14 or under)
Titles appearing less often than quarterly, or titles which appear irregularly

There is no minimum circulation requirement for print publications, but a publication must achieve a minimum sample before any data can be released. Click to see the PAMCo Rules for Measurement and Publication.

58. How do I get my brand on PAMCo?

Magazine publishers should approach the PPA (Professional Publishers Association) and newsbrand publishers should contact NMA (News Media Association) for further information on how to have their brand measured by PAMCo as part of the PAMCo dataset.

59. How do I add, change or amend my print or digital brands on PAMCo?

Publishers who are members of either the NMA or the PPA and who wish make changes to their brands that are currently measured on PAMCo should let PAMCo and their respective industry bodies know.

Any changes required to print and/or digital brands included in PAMCo can be requested by publishers when the list of PAMCo entities is circulated by industry bodies on a monthly basis. With regard to digital brands in particular, it is the publisher’s responsibility to inform PAMCo of any changes made to the Comscore Dictionary that have an impact on the entities reported by PAMCo.

Publishers who are members of either the NMA or the PPA and who wish make changes to their brands that are currently measured on PAMCo should let PAMCo and their respective industry bodies know.

Any changes required to print and/or digital brands included in PAMCo can be requested by publishers when the list of PAMCo entities is circulated by industry bodies on a monthly basis. With regard to digital brands in particular, it is the publisher’s responsibility to inform PAMCo of any changes made to the Comscore Dictionary that have an impact on the entities reported by PAMCo.

60. Do I need to be tagged to have my digital brand included?

Tagging is not essential but is strongly recommended in order to achieve the best possible estimates.

Comscore reports digital audience estimates even if brands are not tagged, using weighted estimates derived from their panels. These estimates can be integrated within the PAMCo database. However appropriate tagging is highly desirable, as this will improve Comscore’s estimate by ensuring all activity is credited, including activity not covered by Comscore’s panels (e.g. from Android tablets).

61. I need help with tagging my digital property, who do I contact?

Please contact Ayesha Neunie at Comscore on

62. What can PAMCo do in case of publisher oversight (including issues with Comscore tagging)?

From PAMCo 2 2019 data release, PAMCo will flag brands that are affected by issues with the digital estimates due to publisher oversight, including issues with Comscore tagging.

Publishers should make PAMCo aware of any issues in advance of the data release. Alternatively, sometimes PAMCo may find anomalies that are consequences of a publisher oversight during the checks carried out ahead of each data release. In either case, PAMCo will inform the Technical Group who will need to approve any instances where a flag of the digital estimates is required.  If approved, an appropriate notice will be added to the PAMCo data release tables, as well as to all data analysis tools on the PAMCo website.

The notice will also be included in the info sections of the planning bureaux.

64. How frequently are PAMCo data published?

PAMCo audience estimates will be published on a quarterly basis.

65. When is the next data release?

Data Period Release Date Embargoed Until
PAMCo 1 2021* Apr’19 – Mar ’20 (Nov ’20 Comscore data) 10th March 2021 00.01 17th March 2021


* Please note that the print data for this release will not be updated from the PAMCo 2 2020 data release. Due to Covid-19, face-face interviewing was suspended on 17th March 2020 and we have been unable to collect April – Dec’ 20 print readership estimates.  The PAMCo Board therefore requested that PAMCo 3 2020, PAMCo 4 2020 and PAMCo 1 2021 data be released using the same print audience estimates as for PAMCo 2 2020 but fused with the latest Comscore data for June 2020, September 2020 and November 2020 respectively

66. How can I get PAMCo training?

PAMCo Client Services is dedicated to helping all of our clients use PAMCo data to its full potential. For detail on our training overview and how to book, please click here.

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